Monday, June 30, 2014

Theories and Methods - Solution-Focused Therapy

Solution-focused therapy (SFT) is an outcome-focused approach developed by Steve de Shazer, Insoo Kim Berg, and others. SFT is usually brief, always goal directed, and concerned with the future. SFT discards analyzing problems and their origins, instead turning all attention to what can be done. Toward this end, SFT has a handful of signature interventions. The most well-known of these (and most likely to show up on the LCSW exam) is the Miracle Question, which asks, "If you woke up and found your problem (e.g., anxiety, depression, other symptom) was gone, what would be different? How could you tell?" The question elicits specifics from the client that can suggest solutions and/or become goals for therapy. Other SFT interventions include scaling questions, exception-seeking questions, and coping questions. When is a problem worst/best? When is a problem absent? How is it that a client is able to function well in some areas despite the problem? Since solution-focused therapy shares the problem-solving orientation seen in much of social work, it is not unheard of to see SFT questions on the licensing exam.

For further review: Solution-focused brief therapy at Wikipedia, and assorted SFT books via Amazon.

Monday, June 16, 2014

Theories and Methods - DBT

If you're not yet familiar with Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and are preparing for the social work licensing exam, now's the time to get comfortable with the basics. DBT was developed by Marsha Linehan to help people with Borderline Personality Disorder. Like CBT, DBT is rigorously rooted in research and results. Like CBT, DBT aims to help people with behavioral and cognitive regulation. What DBT adds is a focus on emotional regulation, distress tolerance, acceptance, and mindfulness.

DBT clients learn to use their "wise mind" (the just-right blend of emotion and reason) with the help of a series of acronyms (e.g., "DEAR MAN," and "ACCEPTS")--simple guides to a long list of coping skills. DBT has been shown to be helpful for clients with and without BPD. Given its research orientation, targeted symptoms, and apparent effectiveness, DBT is precisely the type of approach you can expect to see show up on the social work exam.

For further review: DBT at Wikipedia and the Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder, by Marsha Linehan.

Friday, June 06, 2014

The Code of Ethics

The majority of questions on the social work licensing exam aren't pulling for specific information about DSM diagnoses, developmental theories, and the like. They're vignettes that test for a core sense of social work values and ethics. How to prepare for those? The key reading is free, short, and just a click away: The NASW Code of Ethics. You've encountered it before, no doubt. As you're preparing for the exam, it's time to dig back in. It's worth rereading, word for word. And while you're doing that, you might pause with each section to imagine how the section might be tested for on the exam. Sometimes that will be obvious, sometimes less so.

Also valuable for preparing for ethics questions is Frederic Reamer's Eye on Ethics column from Social Work Today. Many of the dozens of columns contain their own vignette questions, exploring close-call situations that social workers often face. These closely resemble the very scenarios that you'll be asked to consider as you sit for the exam.